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Psychology Of Education
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Emotional Development

By: Ahmed Isse Jama (Gade), Regional Education Inspector

What are Emotions?

“Emotions” are outward expressions of inner feelings which are aroused by one's behavior or that of other. At the same time emotions lead to behavior towards oneself and towards others.

B. Which are the signs of emotional expressions among pupils?
Pleasure may be expressed in the form of smiles, play, laughing, tickling, elation, humor, zest, etc.

Anger of the four years old may be expressed by use of gestures, verbal aggression, sticking the tongue out, mimicry, grimaces, calling names, bragging, boasting and threatening.
Adolescents express anger in a more subtle way. This includes sarcasm, swearing, gossiping and plotting. Some Adolescents and Adults express anger like children. They boast, shout, bluster and walkout.

Fear is expressed by tense muscles, very high pulse rate, rate of breathing rises, sweating, fidgeting, uneasiness, etc.
C. How do emotions affect learning?

Some emotional reactions such as love, tenderness, zest, joy, elations, pleasure, humour and laughter facilitate learning.
Other emotions such as fear, anxiety, guilt, jealousy and anger inhibit learning.

What is Fear?

“Fear” is a feeling of distress, apprehension or alarm caused by impending danger, pain, etc. something that is beyond one’s control, e.g. fear of being late to school, fear of being disliked by the teacher and school mates, fear of being unable to succeed at school work, fear of being unsuccessful in competitive situations, fear of academic failure, fear of social inadequacy and sexual development, etc.

Fear other than in sudden and unexpected situation, is a learned reaction.

How can a teacher helps a child who has excessive fear of academic failure to come out of it?

The teacher can help by:

Creating an atmosphere that will restore the pupil’s confidence.
Asking questions that are within the pupil’s ability and reward him for the success he achieves.

Relating the learning situation to the pupil’s background and make it relevant and meaningful.

Explaining that everyone is afraid sometime or another.

Making the learning experience familiar and achievable.

Avoiding threats, sarcasm, punishment and ridicule.

What are the general trends in emotional development?

Emotional reactions accompany all human activities.

Emotional reactions in children become more and more specific as they grow from early childhood to adolescence.

Emotional feelings and reactions initially function automatically.

Control is however, often imposed on this initial automatic reactions.

People in our environment and dour cultural setting influence our emotional reactions.

The way we develop and express certain responses is determined by our culture, our learning and our motivation.

B. How would you deal with pupil of 14 years of age who is so angered by a member of his peer group that he wants to engage in a fight in the classroom?

Ask the pupil to meet you (the teacher) in the staff room or office.
Let the pupils tell you what had happened, or what led to the disagreement.

Discuss the appropriate action to be taken as a way or providing guidance and counseling.

Discuss ways of dealing with such anger in the future, e.g. going for a walk, playing games, reading, singing, etc.

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