By: Ahmed Isse Jama (Gade), Regional Education Inspector
Teaching – Practice, In Primary Schools
The lesson plan
A lesson plan is a written account of the preparation for a lesson. It shows
in a summary form how the lesson is supposed to proceed. The format used
should be such that will enable the user to find each step easily. A lesson
plan usually includes the following aspects:
a) Teacher activities
b) Pupil activities
We shall consider each of the above aspects in a little more detail.
The information at the top of the lesson includes the name of the teaching
practice school, the class, its size, the subject, and the date and time the
lesson will take place.
The objective or objectives state the value of the lesson to the learner.
They state what mental and psychomotor skills, what knowledge and attitudes
the learner is required to achieve. They may state what concept the learner
will acquire, especially when referring to young children.
The objectives in the lesson plan are not to be confused with the more
general and broad objectives of the particular subject.
Broad subject objectives will only be achieved through the more specific
objective of the lesson plan.
In stating your lesson objectives – instructional objectives – the following
points should be remembered:
A lesson can have more than one objective. Do not, however, aim at achieving
The objective (s) must be stated in a way that shows what the desired change
in the pupils’ behavior will be.
The objective (s) must be achievable within one lesson, unless specified for
a double lesson.
The objective (s) must relate to what the pupils will learn rather than what
the teacher will teach – objectives should be children – centered.
The change in the pupils’ behavior should be observable and measurable.
Let us examine each of the following instructional objectives and comment on
a) To introduce the area of a triangle
b) At the end of the lesson the pupils will understand the area of a
c) At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to calculate the area
of a triangle.
The objective in (a) is teacher – centred not pupil – centred, whereas (b)
is pupil – centred, but is not measurable – the word “understand” is too
abstract to measure. On the other hand (c) is pupil – centred, is measurable
and is achievable within a lesson.
A teacher who has just begun to learn how to write instructional
objectives may find it useful to use the phrase “At the end of the lesson
the pupils should…..? He may continue to use this phrase until it is clear
in his mind how he must state his objectives.
Later he may stop using the phrase and just indicate the pupils’ behavior,
for example by writing ‘the pupils should calculate…’
The following verbs are measurable and therefore should be used to express
instructional objectives: list, identify, write (e.g. write sentences using
certain words), recite, calculate, interpret, state and explain.
The following verbs and phrases are not measurable and therefore must be
avoided when stating instructional objectives: know, understand, learn,
improve, develop, familiarize themselves with, comprehend and increase their
A few examples of good instructional objectives are as follows:
At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:
Discover what happens when metals are heated
Calculate the area of a triangle
Wash white cotton articles
Read and answer the questions at the end of story ‘Mr. Farah’s family’
Draw the map of the school.
To be continued..