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By: Ahmed Isse Jama (Gade), Regional Education Inspector

Teaching – Practice, In Primary Schools

The lesson plan
A lesson plan is a written account of the preparation for a lesson. It shows in a summary form how the lesson is supposed to proceed. The format used should be such that will enable the user to find each step easily. A lesson plan usually includes the following aspects:

General information,
The topic/subtopic,
Objective (s)
Lesson introduction,
Lesson development:
a) Teacher activities
b) Pupil activities


Chalkboard plan


We shall consider each of the above aspects in a little more detail.

General information
The information at the top of the lesson includes the name of the teaching practice school, the class, its size, the subject, and the date and time the lesson will take place.

The objective or objectives state the value of the lesson to the learner. They state what mental and psychomotor skills, what knowledge and attitudes the learner is required to achieve. They may state what concept the learner will acquire, especially when referring to young children.

The objectives in the lesson plan are not to be confused with the more general and broad objectives of the particular subject.
Broad subject objectives will only be achieved through the more specific objective of the lesson plan.

In stating your lesson objectives – instructional objectives – the following points should be remembered:

A lesson can have more than one objective. Do not, however, aim at achieving too much.

The objective (s) must be stated in a way that shows what the desired change in the pupils’ behavior will be.
The objective (s) must be achievable within one lesson, unless specified for a double lesson.
The objective (s) must relate to what the pupils will learn rather than what the teacher will teach – objectives should be children – centered.

The change in the pupils’ behavior should be observable and measurable.

Let us examine each of the following instructional objectives and comment on them.

a) To introduce the area of a triangle

b) At the end of the lesson the pupils will understand the area of a triangle; and

c) At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to calculate the area of a triangle.

The objective in (a) is teacher – centred not pupil – centred, whereas (b) is pupil – centred, but is not measurable – the word “understand” is too abstract to measure. On the other hand (c) is pupil – centred, is measurable and is achievable within a lesson.

A teacher who has just begun to learn how to write instructional objectives may find it useful to use the phrase “At the end of the lesson the pupils should…..? He may continue to use this phrase until it is clear in his mind how he must state his objectives.

Later he may stop using the phrase and just indicate the pupils’ behavior, for example by writing ‘the pupils should calculate…’

The following verbs are measurable and therefore should be used to express instructional objectives: list, identify, write (e.g. write sentences using certain words), recite, calculate, interpret, state and explain.

The following verbs and phrases are not measurable and therefore must be avoided when stating instructional objectives: know, understand, learn, improve, develop, familiarize themselves with, comprehend and increase their vocabulary.

A few examples of good instructional objectives are as follows:
At the end of the lesson the pupils should be able to:
Discover what happens when metals are heated
Calculate the area of a triangle
Wash white cotton articles
Read and answer the questions at the end of story ‘Mr. Farah’s family’
Draw the map of the school.

To be continued..

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