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- Educational Programme

- National Dialogue Is Overdue
- Statement Of U.S. Senator Russ Feingold Remarks For Africa Policy

- Are We Living In Rome? Is Janus Around?

- Sovereign States Rule... Or Do They?

- The Sovereignty Of Somaliland And Its Role In The Conflict Resolution Of The Region

By: Ahmed Isse Jama (Gade), Regional Education Inspector
Teaching – Practice, In Primary Schools
Preparing To Teach
The lesson plan
References, learning aid (s), lesson introduction, lesson development
and conclusion

In this section are listed the reference books, textbooks or any
other sources of information used for preparing and teaching a

Where information is obtained from the pupils’ book and teacher’s
guide, the pages must be indicated.

Learning aid (s):
Any materials that are used to make learning more effective should be
listed here. Learning aids can be real objects, models, charts,
pictures, etc. It is important to remember the following points when
using learning aids.

They must be adequate for the number of pupils in the class
Real objects are the best learning aids.

Models, pictures, photographs and charts are used when real objects
cannot be obtained.

These must be simple, clear and brief.

The next three sections form the main body of the lesson plan and
outline the procedure of the lesson.

Lesson introduction:
Some prefer to put the introduction as step one of the lesson
development section, others like to identify it as an aspect separate
from the lesson development. Whatever the practice, a lesson
introduction serves to gain the attention of the pupils at the
beginning of the lesson.

If the teacher starts the lesson well, he should be able to maintain
the pupil’s interest throughout the lesson.

The following broad ideas might be used as introductions to lessons.

Ask questions about previous lessons that are related to the present
one. A few examples of such questions must be indicated in the lesson

Discuss a familiar situation with the pupils.

Display an interesting learning aid related to the lesson and discuss
it with the pupils.

Lesson development
The development of the lesson is shown in steps, the number of which
depends on the nature of the topic. The subject-matter will be
presented in an orderly and logical sequence. It is important to
start with what is known to the pupils, before the new information is
introduced to them. The teacher must present the information at a
simple level and move on gradually to the more difficult aspects of
the subject.

This section is divided into two parts – teacher activities and pupil
activities. In each step the teacher must be clear about what he or
she intends to do and what the pupils must do. At no point should the
pupils be wasting time in a lesson, not knowing what to do next. Some
examples of teacher activities are explanation, asking questions,
demonstration, providing the necessary materials, and giving
instructions. Some examples of pupil activities are:- listening,
answering questions, discussing, experimenting, looking the
information on maps, drawing, modeling, and answering written
questions or doing exercises.

In the step before conclusion, the teacher should prepare some kind
of activity so that the pupils can apply their new knowledge or the
skill which they have learned during the lesson. Some of the
activities mentioned can be used. The emphasis here is on learning by

The conclusion is the rounding-off of the lesson satisfactorily, the
way it is done depending on the nature of the lesson. A conclusion
may involve:

Going over the main points of the lesson through oral or written

Correcting some common mistakes made by the pupils while working,
e.g. in a mathematics lessons;

Emphasizing again the main message of the lesson, e.g. that of a
religious education lesson;

Summarizing the main points of the lesson.

Collecting books and tidying up at the end of a lesson are obvious
duties and are not to be regarded as activities to round-off the

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