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The Development Routes Of Somaliland
Somali land has been stable now for going thirteen years, while the rest of Somalia has been caught up in the struggle which has destroyed Mogadishu and thrown the rest of the country in to the chaos.
The former British protectorate of Somaliland, the region to the north of the country, bordering Ethiopia and below Djibouti has been experiencing return to civil rule. There is a population between 2.5-3 million.
After two years of SNM administration Somaliland was ruled with Borama charter by clan based government which was established in the nation conference of Borama in 1993. Four yrs within time, the government succeeded to settle the whole country and through every thing into total peace with well functioning government system.
Then in 1997 another national conference was held in Hargeysa (the capital) and elected new government. One of their most important tasks of that government was to prepare & organize national constitution. The constitution totally changed clan based system onto multi party system, political parties were established and than took part the election and finally three of the have won, constitutionally these three parties were recognized as a national political parties, 2003 there were presidential and local. elections and these multi parties democracy is developing although, there is some misunderstanding among political parties
2005 we have seen parliamentary election where 6, 00,000 Somali Landers have voted in general international observers judged these elections were free and fair.
His first year in office president Rayale, fought against corruption and mismanagement, second he make possible every thing includes local presidential and Parliamentary elections, despite like other African leaders do. President Rayale persuaded British parliament how Somaliland deserves recognition at the same time he welcomed African union delegations to his country to see on their ayes what is going on.
Finally President Rayale took a wonder full decision to settle the conflict among the new parliament of Somaliland and this is the result of his politics, the peace full resolution of human disputes through compromise, can we say Rayale himself deserves to give a (Nobel peace). More over the country is developing new and there is desperate need to build basic infrastructures that would create at least a functioning health & education system further economic investment would enable the country to tap the many natural resources and begin to capitalize on these.
Mean while there are said to be about 354 primary school and 30 intermediate (secondary) schools in Somaliland with the total enrolment of 124,000 students, 4380 of these are intermediate schools. Three are three universities, Bur’o, Hargeysa, and of course Amoud university in Borama. Many people from other regions in Somaliland & Somalia join to Amoud University, all the time since; Amoud University is the best university in Somaliland and Somalia. The total student’s enrolment currently stands700 with 40 full time lectures, there are quite a few private schools in the urban areas, and most have a good reputation such as sunshine Hargeysa, Al aqsa and Ubaya in Borama, there are always more male students than female students, in general around 70%/30%. There is only female school, deaf school and blind school in Borama, but the government support a policy of co-education, there is a standard curriculum set by ministry of education and which all of schools follow the exams also come from the ministry support by the center for British teachers (CBI) an English NGO which supports secondary educations, sets GCSE exam for all schools, there is a scheme bringing teachers from Egypt.
In addition nationally there are 10 hospitals employing 132 qualified medical staff and 47 health centers with 125 posts, how ever not all of these are functioning and salaries for all posts are not regular. Access to primary health care is not easy for most people, medical supplies are available only in the private sector and are beyond the financial reach of most people life expectancy is 47 years among the worst in the world. Death in child booth are common, mental health is a very serious issue with anecdotal of almost every family having one person, usually male, chained up at home suffering from some form of mental illness. Some of this can be put down to the pervasiveness of Khat which almost every male chew every day, services are very rough with mental hospital in the capital and one small center in Borama, established by LNGO, all the health problems associated with khat have yet to be properly investigated apart from the obvious impact on mental health, research so far identifies stomach & bowel problems, oral cancer and other.
On the other hand the main national source of Government revenue, trade in camels, cattle’s, Sheep and Goats to Saudi Arabia and the gulf of states, has been hard hit by a second import ban caused by fears of the spread of Rift Valley Fever.
Somaliland is not recognized internationally as a separate state, and this hampers anything other than minimal aid flows from major donors. Conversely lack of recognition has created a culture of self -reliance among the Somali people, supported by a relatives and friends in the Diaspora.
The population has made enormous efforts to re establish basic health and education service.
The majority of Somali people are pastoral nomads. Camels (the traditional currency of prestige and wealth), Sheep, goats, and some cattle are raised in large number across the plains and rangelands of Somaliland and provide both daily subsistence and the economic backbone of the country.
An estimated 60% of the population depend on directly or indirectly on livestock and livestock product for their livelihood. Agriculture provides subsistence for nearly 20% of the country's population and is practiced mostly in the east of the country and towards the northwest where sufficient rainfall allows. Crops grown include sorghum, maize, fruit and vegetables.
Erosion is seen as the major threat to the agriculture sector as is urban development, there is a need for agriculture extension service to promote modern farming methods & to develop new crops, and these can provide a balance to produce for the home market and for export.
Somaliland has a long coastline and rich fishing grounds that are often exploited by foreign vessels.
Somaliland was an exporter of labor to league of Arab states and other countries, received remittance from these workers, and these are constituted the largest sources of freeing economy, based on an assumption of $300 - $500 Million per annum.
GDP/capita is about $ 200, and there is a livelihood of 59% of pastoralist/agro pastoralist, 17% of agriculture, and 24% of urban.
The informal economy and trade is strong and the result can be seen in the variety of goods available within the major urban areas. There is a flourishing trade in the mild stimulant Khat. However, unemployment is high and there are few formal job opportunities for young people.
The government's ability to promote economic development is constrained by its meager budget. The 2004 budget was $25 million, of which nearly two thirds 2/3 went to security related expenses.
In short, Somaliland undeveloped sectors include: -
Plantation economy, Mining, Forestry, Fishing, Manufacturing and Foreign trade.