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Issue 273 / 14th April 2007
Issue 272 271 270 269 268 267 266 265

Victims of war crimes unearthed by heavy spring rains at Boqol-Jire in Hargeysa

UN Envoy Concerned At Rising Tensions Between Puntland And Somaliland

" Qaran has a legitimate concern and an arguable legal case "

Somaliland Troops Clash With Puntland Forces

Call For Peace And Justice In Somalia

Africa's Success Story

Two Eritrean Journalists Captured In Somalia Held With “Foreign Fighters”

Somali Civilians Murdered, Raped, As Conflict Worsens, UN Says

Mission Report on the Trial Observation of Detained Human Rights Defenders
in Somaliland

Regional Affairs

The Independence Of Somaliland A Reality Not A Hope, UDUB

Somaliland: Africa's Oasis Of Calm

Special Report

International News

Peacekeepers With No Peace To Keep

U.S. declines to comment on reported North Korean arms sales to Ethiopia

Kadra Attacked In Public

Doomsday for the Greenback

Worse Than Apartheid?



Ethiopia Acknowledges Detaining 41 Suspected Terrorists, Denies Wrongdoing

Washington Post Equates Imus's Racist Remarks with When He Called Cheney a "War Criminal"

Somalia's Descent To Hell

North Koreans Arm Ethiopians As U.S. Assents

Somalia : 'The World's Hidden Shame'

The West Now Takes Keen Interest in Peace for Somalia

Food for thought


Recognition: Ritual or Requisite?

Bad Days Ahead For Puntlanders

The Twenth first Genocide

The Majeerten Envy Towards Somaliland

Mogadishu Massacre: Ethiopia Serves Vengeance In Cold For The US!

Somaliland's Foreign Policy, Understanding The Process Of Multilateral Diplomacy

Ich Bin Ein Hawiye (I Am A Hawiye Citizen)

Is Somaliland Teetering Towards Failure? - Part II


ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia, April 13, 2007 – Mohamed Ismail Bulale ,General Secretary of UDUP party said that the independence of Somaliland is no longer a hope but a reality and appealed for all democratic nations to fully understand what Somaliland deserves.

Women line up to vote during first multiparty parliamentary elections in breakaway Somaliland, September 2005. REUTERS/Stringer

Women line up to vote during first multiparty parliamentary elections in breakaway Somaliland, September 2005. REUTERS/Stringer

Apr 13, 2007 – There is a Muslim region in the Horn of Africa that, with little external help and without any pressure from the West, has built "a peaceful, democratic state that, for the most part, upholds human rights".

Hargeysa, Somaliland, April 14, 2007 (SL Times) – The Somaliland livestock minister has announced on Monday that an agreement on livestock exports has been reached between Somaliland and a Saudi Arabian businessman. The businessman will export 2,000,000 heads of cattle, camels or goats per year.

Ethiopian troops in Mogadishu
Ethiopian troops entered Mogadishu in December

Asmara, April 13, 2007 – A member of Somalia's transitional government has accused Ethiopian troops in the capital Mogadishu of committing genocide since arriving in December.

The accusations came from Hussein Aideed - a former Somali warlord who is the deputy prime minister of the transitional government.

LAS ANOD, Somaliland, 8 April, 2007 – The Puntland-appointed police commander of Sool region defected to the rival country of Somaliland on Sunday, officials here said.

Col. Mohamed Hussein Abtiile surrendered himself to Somaliland soldiers near Ari'adeye village, where the two forces stand opposite each other on disputed land.

Reporters Without Borders Press release

Paris, April 10, 2007 – Reporters Without Borders expressed concern today about press freedom in Somalia after a presidential spokesman ordered the arrest of a TV crew and the authorities in Puntland, a stronghold of President Abdillahi Yusuf Ahmed, banned journalists from holding professional meetings without permission.

Cairo, Egypt, April 11, 2007 – A senior Arab League official says the conference to reconcile Somalia's warring factions has been postponed until mid-May for security reasons.

The league's head of African affairs, Samir Hosni, made the announcement in Cairo Wednesday as new violence broke out in the Somali capital, Mogadishu.

Read full text...

Ethiopia shows terror detainees on state-run television
Photo released by Ethiopian government owned news agency, ENA

NAIROBI, Kenya, April 11, 2007 – Ethiopia, facing criticism over its detention of foreign terror suspects, paraded eight detainees on state-run television, with one prisoner saying the captors were "like our friends" and were treating them well.

BOSSASO, Somalia, 10 April, 2007 - Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Gedi led a large federal delegation to the Puntland regions in northern Somalia on Tuesday.

Premier Gedi was joined by several of his Cabinet ministers and the Somali national police commander, Gen. Ali Madobe.

ead full text...

MOGADISHU, Somalia, April 10, 2007 – Recent fighting between Ethiopian-backed government troops and Islamic insurgents in Somalia's capital killed more than 1,000 civilians and wounded 4,300, according to a report by the largest clan in the battle-scarred city.

The estimate was a dramatic escalation in the death toll from four days of bloodshed that started in late March - the country's worst violence in more than 15 years. An earlier estimate by a Somali human rights group said more than 1,000 civilians had been killed or wounded.

New York, April 9, 2007- Ethiopia’s High Court today acquitted and set free eight editors and publishers of Amharic-language newspapers who have been jailed on antistate charges since a massive November 2005 government crackdown, according to local journalists and media reports.

“We welcome the verdict of the High Court and the long overdue release of these journalists,” said CPJ Executive Director Joel Simon.

Mohammed Qaid Sa'eed 'Abu Yasser'

Businessman Mohammed Qaid Sa’eed, also known as Abu Yasser, is a Yemeni immigrant living in Saudi Arabia. He owns a group of companies working in the agricultural sector and livestock production. His most recent investment was in Djibouti, where he invested $75 million to create a state-of-the-art regional quarantine and livestock facility to supply meat for markets in the Middle East and Africa. The Yemen Times met with Abu Yasser and asked him about his investments in the region.

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Washington, D.C. April 11, 2007 – The International Republican Institute (IRI) today announced it will send an international delegation to monitor Nigeria’s April 21 presidential and parliamentary elections.   Representatives from China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Hungary, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Namibia, Poland, Somaliland, Sudan, Uganda and the United States will travel to Nigeria to monitor voting and ballot counting throughout the country.  

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In this file picture, displaced Somali families...

In this file picture, displaced Somali families sit under a tree at Elesha Biyaha settlement on the southern outskirts of Mogadishu, April 8, 2007. Government forces and clan militia clashed in northern Mogadishu on Wednesday, as continued insecurity in the Somali capital delayed a national reconciliation meeting seen as critical to a viable state. REUTERS/Shabelle Media

MOGADISHU, April 11, 2007 – Government forces and clan militia clashed in northern Mogadishu on Wednesday, as continued insecurity in the Somali capital delayed a national reconciliation meeting seen as critical to a viable state.

Read full text...
Nigeria president Olusegun Obasanjo (File)
Olusegun Obasanjo (file)

Washington, D.C. State Department, 12 April 2007 - The United States Thursday called on the Nigerian government and election officials to do everything they can to assure the fairness of the country's upcoming elections. The run-up to the two-stage legislative and presidential elections beginning Saturday has been marred by opposition charges of vote-rigging and intimidation. VOA's David Gollust reports from the State Department.

Human remains in a farm field located at Boqol Jire in Hargeysa

Hargeysa, Somaliland, 14 April 2007 (SL Times) - A new site containing hundreds of victims of war crimes perpetuated by Siyad Barre’s regime in 1989 was discovered early this week, when heavy downpours of the spring rains exposed a number of mass graves with human remains in a farm field located in Boqol Jire district of Hargeysa.

This particular site is close to the largest genocide mass graves discovered in Somaliland at Mulki Durduro, and is located on the farmland of Sheikh Ibrahim Sheikh Musa Duale.

Hargeysa, Somaliland, 14 April 2007 (SL Times) - On Thursday, President Dahir Rayale Kahin officially informed parliament that he would not approve the 2007 legislated national state budget which was endorsed by parliament on 19 March 2007.

A press statement issued by the President to parliament stated that he is unable to comply with the amendments made by parliament to the national proposed budget for the year 2007, which was submitted to parliament by his ministry of finance in February this year. The statement further said, "The amendments made to the ministry of finance’s budget for the year 2007 by the house parliament committee for finance and economics is unconstitutional and unlawful, and parliament has gone beyond its constitutional duties and legal framework.”

Read full text...

Nairobi, April 13, 2007 – Reacting to rising tensions between Somalia's autonomous Puntland region and self-declared Somaliland, the senior United Nations envoy to the country today called on all sides to allow humanitarian activities to continue unimpeded.

"These tensions threaten not only to undermine the political stability and economic progress that both sides have so painstakingly achieved, but also international support for their efforts," Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's Special Representative for Somalia, François Lonseny Fall, said in a statement released in Nairobi.

Hargeysa, Somaliland, 14 April 2007 (SL Times) - Somaliland Times asked Ibrahim Hashi Jama, a Somaliland lawyer living in the UK, to give a brief and informal view of his understanding and thoughts regarding the current constitutional confusion surrounding the legality of registering a political organization/party in Somaliland. Ibrahim is the Chairman of the Somaliland Forum Constitution & Law Committee. He has written extensively about the Somaliland laws, and is also the editor of website.

At the time, the SL Times did not have the intention to publish Ibrahim Hashi's views regarding this thorny matter, but we simply sought his opinion out of curiosity. After reading his reply, we thought that it deserved a wider readership.

Nairobi, April 12, 2007 – Officials in the breakaway republic of Somaliland say their forces clashed with troops from the semi-autonomous Puntland region earlier this week over a disputed strip of desert that has been the source of violence for years.   As VOA Correspondent Alisha Ryu reports from our East Africa Bureau in Nairobi, analysts say rising tensions between the two regions is further complicating efforts to pacify the Horn of Africa.

A statement issued by the Somaliland Information Ministry says that Puntland security forces in nearly 24 trucks, most mounted with heavy weapons, attacked the town of Dahar early Monday morning.

Read full text..

Hargeysa, April 14, 2007 (SL Times) – The Somaliland Times obtained a copy of the “Call for Peace and Justice in Somalia” signed by over two hundred Somaliland citizens including traditional leaders, religious leaders, politicians, intellectuals, and civil society leaders. The appeal has been in circulation since March 30, 2007 two days after violence broke out in Mogadishu between the supporters and opponents of the TFG. The content of the appeal is as follows:

WE—the traditional elders, the religious leaders, the politicians, the intellectuals, the civil society leaders, and the businessmen of Somaliland whose names are listed below—want to respectfully inform IGAD, the AU, the Arab League, the EU, the UN, the United States, and the African Governments deploying peacekeeping forces to Somalia that:

Against all the odds, and with little international support, Somaliland is well on the road to stability and democracy

Peter Tatchell
Peter Tatchell

April 12, 2007

Too much of the news we hear about Africa is negative: famine, civil war, HIV, corruption and dictatorship. The latest horror stories from Darfur, Zimbabwe and the Congo grab the headlines, but quiet success stories like Somaliland rarely make the news.

I am talking about Somaliland, not Somalia. The contrast between the two states could not be greater. In the chaos and brutality of war-torn Somalia, more than 1,000 people have been killed or wounded in the last two weeks. Since February, nearly 100,000 refugees have fled the fighting in Mogadishu, bringing the total of displaced persons to more than 400,000.

Clan fighters have declared war against Ethiopia's presence in Somalia

Mogadishu, April 13, 2007 – Senior tribal leaders from Somalia's largest clan have declared war on Ethiopian troops and called on all Somalis to join them.

The announcement by members of the Hawai clan in Mogadishu, the Somali capital,   on Friday threatened to escalate fighting between Somalia's interim government, which is backed by the Ethiopian army, and its opponents.

“Only four of the 15 members on the UN Security Council have voted in favor of independence for Kosovo.

UN mediator Marti Ahtisaari seated before a map of Kosovo. Little initial support for independence.
UN mediator Marti Ahtisaari seated before a map of Kosovo. Little initial support for independence

NEW YORK, April 10, 2007 - Despite energetic US State Department cheerleading, Kosovo's independence drive is off to a slow start at the United Nations. A plan by UN Special Envoy Marti Ahtisaari - endorsed and lobbied for by the United States - is attempting to grant Kosovo sovereignty from Serbia, overriding Serbia's protestations.

Notwithstanding American enthusiasm, during the first round of consultations on the issue Tuesday, only four of the 15 members on the UN Security Council voted in favor of Ahtisaari's plan.

Read full text...

Reporters Without Borders Press release

Paris, April 13 2007 – Reporters Without Borders called today on the Somali and Ethiopian governments to explain   why two Eritrean state TV journalists had been held in secret after being arrested late last year along with several Somalis and foreigners near the border with Kenya.

“Like many other foreign journalists, they were reporting on the situation in Somalia and were not foreign fighters, as those arrested with them appear to be,” the worldwide press freedom organisation said. “They were journalists from one of the world’s most closed-off and repressive countries and we fear for their safety, whether they continue to be held or are returned to their own country."

Nairobi, April 13, 2007 – Hundreds of Somali civilians have been killed or raped in the past month with fighting in the Horn of Africa nation at its heaviest since the outbreak of civil war more than a decade ago, the United Nations said.

More than 200,000 residents have fled the capital, Mogadishu, since February and a truce signed earlier this month between government forces and clan militiamen has already collapsed, John Holmes, the UN's top humanitarian affairs official, said yesterday.

Read full text...

Journalists working for Haatuf Media Network, among them Mr. Muhamad Rashid Farha (2nd left upper row) with Mr. Hassan Shire Sheikh, head of the EHAHRD-Net delegation (3rd left, upper row)

Objectives of the mission

It is the denial of a fair trial to Yusuf Gabobe and his fellow accused that has made this mission necessary. It was believed that a direct assessment of the situation on spot as well as proactive cooperation with the civil society in Somaliland was necessary to actively reinforce local and international efforts to lobby the authorities for affording a fair trial to the detained journalists. The objectives of the mission therefore were:

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International News

Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Dr. Jendayi E. Frazer

Date: April 12, 2007

Somewhere along the crooked path that runs from the collapse of the Soviet Union that signaled the emergence of the United States as the world’s lone superpower to the seemingly intractable conflict in Iraq that has dashed dreams of facile democratic transformation in the Middle East there emerged the belief that if only the international community would line up behind the requisite multilateral peacekeeping force, the vexing conflict du jour—whether ethnic cleansing in the Balkans, genocide in Sudan, or clan-based civil war in Somalia—would be magically resolved.

April 10, 2007

The U.S. State Department declined on Monday to comment on a New York Times report saying the Bush administration allowed Ethiopia to complete a secret arms purchase from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), in what appears to be a violation of the sanctions,

"This refers to a New York Times story that appeared on Sunday, and I stated in the morning I'm not going to have any particular comment on the details of that story," State Department spokesman Sean McCormack said.

Read full text...
Norwegian-Somalian Kadra has taken risks to front her views. PHOTO: Knut Fjeldstad / SCANPIX

Oslo, April 13, 2007 – Norwegian-Somalian Kadra, who became famous in Norway for exposing imam support of female circumcision, was beaten unconscious on Thursday.

Kadra was attacked and beaten senseless by seven or eight persons of Somali origin, newspaper VG reports.

Read full text...

April 11, 2007

“Of all the contrivances for cheating the laboring classes of mankind, none has been more effective than that which deludes them with paper money.” Daniel Webster

The American people are in La-la land. If they had any idea of what the Federal Reserve was up to they’d be out on the streets waving fists and pitchforks. Instead, we go our business like nothing is wrong.

Are we really that stupid?

BETHLEHEM, West Bank, April 9, 2007 - Hani Hayek, an accountant who is the Christian mayor of the tiny majority-Christian Palestinian village of Beit Sahour, was angry last week as he drove me along the Israeli security wall. "They are taking our communal lands," he said, pointing to the massive Israeli settlement of Har Homa. "They don't want us to live here. They want us to leave."

Somaliland Map
Somaliland map


U.S officials have lately been engaged in a vigorous campaign to paint a rosy picture of the situation in Somalia in the aftermath of the Ethiopian invasion. It is difficult to explain what is behind this optimism given the dire conditions in that country. If the reason was the quick and unexpected defeat of the Islamic Courts, one would have expected the U.S administration would have learned by now not to repeat the mistake it made in Iraq of celebrating the outcome of the war too early. What is even more surprising is that US officials continued to make optimistic celebratory statements even as late as this month. For example, in an interview with HornAfrik, the American Ambassador to Kenya, Michael Ranneberger, gave a positive picture of the situation in Mogadishu. Among other things he said, “We do believe that progress is being made and it’s important that people not lose sight of that.” The ambassador added, “this is still the best chance that the Somali have had to have a stable government and peace in almost two decades.”

Read full text...

Special Report


By Prof. M. Y. Ali

In this paper, seismic, well, and outcrop data have been used to determine the petroleum systems of Somaliland. These data demonstrate that the country has favourable stratigraphy, structure, oil shows, and hydrocarbon source rocks.


In November 2005, the Centre for Human Rights began investigating the possibility of a third destination for the LLM field trip. The reasons for increasing the number of field trip destinations to include Somaliland include the following:

Somaliland is a state in the making; it would be ideal for students on the programme to have a first hand experience of this.

Read full text.

By Yassin M. Ismail, Kent UK

My rather satirical article published in the Somaliland Times issue No. 272 on 7 th April 2007, under the title of [Imagine Somaliland As Offshoot Republic of China], may have rubbed some readers the wrong way, while among others it sparked a heated debate on the future of Somaliland. This was exactly what the article has set out to achieve, to arouse debate and discussion on a possible way out of the current political stagnation of Somaliland in the absence of International recognition, which is crippling the socio-economic potential of the country.

Bad Days Ahead For Puntlanders

By Mohamud Tani

Somaliland is in the process of reclaiming all land within its historical and internationally demarcated boundaries. That is something good for the Puntlanders if they understand that peace and good neighborly relations is fundamental to human coexistence. The question is do they?

In Mogadishu Abdillahi Yusuf began his days with genocide. Before even establishing a rudimentary Administration, he and his allies killed thousands and thousands of civilians. They maimed tens of thousands more. They displaced hundreds of thousands.

The Twenth first Genocide

By Ahmed Noor Musa

The more you read and study the history of people, the more analogies you discover and at the same time the wearier you become of analogies. History doesn't repeat itself exactly but it is full of analogies and echoes. Some of these analogies are routinely abused, while some others are bitterly resisted. Today, a prime example of the later must be the angry clamour that arises whenever we compare what is happening in Mogadisho, the massacre and intimidation that are subjected by the invaded and fascist and anti-Somali government of Ethiopia to the genocide that erupted in Rwanda in 1994.

The Majeerten Envy Towards Somaliland

By Dr Omar Dihoud

We would like to point out to the people of Somaliland and the international community that Somaliland has for a long time been trying to maintain the peace in the region.

As the International community recognises Somaliland prior to the union with Somalia had a clear boundary and was an internationally recognized country. Today Somaliland abides by those boundaries.

By Yassin Ismail, Kent UK

Nearly one thousand Somali civilians, including women and children have been killed in Mogadishu following 4 day of heavy fighting between the Ethiopian troops supporting the TFG and insurgents belonging to the Hawiye clan, in what the observers described an indiscriminate massacre against an ethnically defined people. The fighting also caused the displacement of tens of thousands of innocent civilians who fled their homes due to the indiscriminate shelling of Ethiopians troops on many heavily populated areas of the capital using helicopter gunships and other sophisticated artillery barrages.

Read full text...

By Abdulkadir Idan

Somaliland marches on to its eventual predestined future in which God has chosen for it. The current political atmosphere is tense within the Horn of African region. Somaliland has remained outside the helm of this chaos. Today it is clear not only to the world but to large sections of Somali society that Somalia is only a country which exists on paper and doesn't actually exist as a nation.

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By Dr. Abdishakur Jowhar

Mogadishu , the capital of Somalia, is a city living a clandestine nightmare that even Dante could not imagine. But on this day nothing could conceal the truth as told by dead bodies piling up on its streets. Every freshly killed body, every dead body thrown into the impromptu mass graves; every one of these belongs to only one Somali tribe and no other. Over 1000 bodies of civilians have been found so far; and every last one of them belong to the same tribe-the Hawiye. The dead do not lie. And this is the story they tell; the story of the curse of tribal cleansing yet again;

By Noah Arre

What can be done to avoid it?

Now that due to racism, the West has intentionally snubbed Somaliland simply because it (Somaliland) is neither a Christian nation nor it is one of its kin or kind; now that the Arab World intentionally ignores Somaliland simply because it is of no interest to her and now that ignorant AU does not or cannot interpret even to itself what its charter preaches or promulgates… “To keep Africa’s colonial boundaries in tact”, which Somaliland secession, which should it happen, will not violate. It is, therefore, a requirement that all Somaliland people, both inside the country and elsewhere, take the torch of hope for their country and save it from the seemingly impending catastrophes that are looming on the horizon.

Kenya’s Members Of Parliament Fact Finding Mission To Somaliland on 19th - 23rd DECEMBER 2006

Wednesday, 11 April 2007


During the Kenya Parliament's Christmas recess in December 2006, members of the Kenyan Parliament received invitations from the House of Representatives of the Republic of Somaliland to visit their country for interaction and dialogue with Parliamentary Representatives of the people of Somaliland.

Read full text...

Forty-two-year-old mother of three, Kamilya Mohammedi Tuweni, left, sits with her brother Sabry Abdullah in her house in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, Sunday, April 1, 2007. Kamilya said she was held incommunicado, without charges or due process for more than two and a half months in jails in Kenya, Somalia and finally Ethiopia. She was freed a month after being interviewed, fingerprinted and photographed by a U.S. agent, she said. (AP Photo/Nousha Saimi) (Nousha Salimi - AP)

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia: The Ethiopian government acknowledged detaining 41 suspected international terrorists from 17 countries and said foreign investigators were given permission to question them, said an official statement published Tuesday.

“The arming by the U.S. of both the Ethiopians and Somalis in preparation for war is nothing new”

April 12, 2007

Washington Post goes from elitist paper to neo-con propaganda rag. Two editorials in yesterday's Washington Post point to the slide of that paper into the realm of neo-con propaganda spinning. Although this web site has studiously avoided commenting on the Don Imus matter, the Post equated the radio host's disparaging racist remarks about the Rutgers University Women's Basketball team to his previous calling of Vice President Dick Cheney a "war criminal."

By Simon Tisdall

Nairobi, April 4, 2007 – Predictions that the US-backed Ethiopian invasion of Somalia last Christmas would hasten rather than halt the country's political disintegration are proving grimly accurate. In the league of failed states, Somalia is runaway leader. With international attention focused on Zimbabwe and Darfur, it is the hidden shame of the world.

Ethiopian tanks in Somalia. Ethiopia bought much of its military equipment from the former Soviet Union and relies on North Korean parts.

WASHINGTON, April 8, 2007 - Three months after the United States successfully pressed the United Nations to impose strict sanctions on North Korea because of the country’s nuclear test, Bush administration officials allowed Ethiopia to complete a secret arms purchase from the North, in what appears to be a violation of the restrictions, according to senior American officials.

Internally displaced Somalis flee from fighting in Mogadishu. Photo by REUTERS/Shabele Media
Internally displaced Somalis flee from fighting in Mogadishu. Photo by REUTERS/Shabele Media

Apr 11, 2007

While Western countries are desperate to find a solution for Somalia following the latest fighting, it’s worth remembering that it was the West that destroyed the tribal arrangements which used to hold Somalia together, writer Hugh Graham says in the Toronto Star. Even the current divisions between Somalia's peaceful north and restive south are due to western involvement.

Tuesday, April 10, 2007

The Transitional Federal Government has been making great efforts towards establishing lasting peace in Somalia, despite serious challenges in recent months, especially in and around Mogadishu.

The terrible situation in Mogadishu has overshadowed the relatively peaceful areas notably Somaliland, Puntland and the south. Remnant hardliners of the Islamic Courts Union have largely been responsible for the recent upsurge of violence in Mogadishu.

Food for thought

By Ivan Eland

April 12, 2007 - The media often report overseas developments, but don’t always explore their underlying causes, which, in many cases, conveniently lets the U.S. government off the hook. The recent internecine violence in Somalia provides a classic example.

Read full text...


Somaliland Times Newspaper: Publisher Haatuf Media Network, Published in Hargeysa, Somaliland


Editor in Chief: Yusuf Abdi Gabobe. Assoc-Editor: Rashid Mustafa X Noor

Assist-Editor: Abdifatah M Aideed

Somaliland Times Web Editor : Rashid Mustafa X Noor (2005)

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