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High school learning has a vital mission

Issue 289
Front Page

Somaliland Interior Minister: “We Will Make More Arrests”

Ethiopian Airlines Becomes The First To Fly from Hargeysa Airport at Night

"The 'Puntland State of Somalia' Comes into Play"

Somali National Army To Integrate Puntland Forces

At Least 10 Dead in Latest Somalia Violence

E-passport gets into full swing

The Ministries of TFG are not the working bodies, but just the collection of pseudo-clerks

Attack on Somali Funeral Procession Leaves 1 Dead, 3 Injured

Mogadishu under house-to-house search operations

At long, long last, the UN flexes its muscles in Darfur

Lawmakers in Somalia debate over Prime Minister's future

Regional Affairs

Somaliland's Political Veterans Must Be Released Immediately

“No Political Prisoners in Somaliland”

Special Report

International News

UN Security Council devotes August month to Africa

Seeking refuge: Displaced Utah families struggle to find housing

Campaign Memo: "Barack Obama Was Right"

Son of Ugandan Ex-president jailed for the murder of Somali man


Ethiopia's dirty war

Is Pridnestrovie A State?

Hero of the Republic of Cuba Writing a Novel

The Motives Behind The Bush Administration’s Latest Terror Scare

Gebrselassie Wins NYC Half Marathon

Life without hope

Food for thought


End To Unlawful Arrests Or The End Of Rayale’s Reign Of Tyranny

Faisal Ali Waraabti & Bashir Goth Missed This Time

Somaliland and the latest political issues...

Forward: To The International Community

Somaliland’s Forthcoming Presidential Election Is Predicted

Somaliland People Never Learn From History New Kind Of Siyad Barre In The Making In Somaliland

Desperate Measures From A Desperate Government

By Dr. Ghirmai T Kefela, Ph.D. (Int. Business)

The primary school offer young children is a growing matter, which start bearing fruit and a strong pressure will be felt once they join the higher level of the education system. Obviously, in many developing countries secondary school participation rates is low and couldn’t grow as expected without changes in the structure and nature of their financing. Changing the role of secondary schools relates to curricula patterns, and these carry implications for the school organization and resources. The primary school curricula stress the importance of these basic learning tools to lay the foundations for more systematic acquisition of skills and capabilities at higher levels. The secondary school curricula are typically more focus on analytics and abstract skills in principle as well as practice, stress links with outcomes that relate to that which is useful in employment and adult life. It is a secondary school level that science and technology can be developed in depth, language skills can be consolidated and higher cognitive skills refined and applied to problems. It also recognizes that surging demand for secondary education in many parts of the developing countries creates an invaluable opportunity to build up in large scale a workforce that is well trained and capable of generating knowledge-driven economic growth. In today’s world, secondary education has a vital mission - one which combines the policy peculiarities of being at the same time terminal and preparatory, compulsory and post-compulsory, uniform and diverse, general and vocational. Secondary education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational systems in the 21st century.  Quality secondary education is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike.

In the two groups of countries (developed and developing) are the most important causes of differential social and economical levels are only the differences in the scientific and technological infrastructure and in the popularization of science and technology. An essential prerequisite to a country's technological progress is early recognition of necessity of a good educational system. This was one of the key factors that contributed to Japan's economic success. The critical size of human resources and infrastructure, and the amount of investments in these areas, illustrates how science and technology importance are neglected in developing countries.

Industry and universities in Turkey face shortages of researchers -10 for every 100,000 of population compared with 280 in US, 240 in Japan, 150 in Germany, 140 in the UK. In 1984, in Turkey non-defense research expenditures were 0.20% of GNP, while in the US they were 2.74%, 2.65% in Japan, and 2.54 % in Germany. Thus, developing countries have principal shortcomings in their funding and supporting scientific infrastructure. The practical use of science through technology created the climate for ever increasing emphasis on the pursuit of science and education in developed countries, where funding scientific enterprises is widely accepted as a vital and long-term investment. Contributions of industry to national expenditures on research and development are about twice this amount.

Secondary education is indeed a central stage for the education system. This is where most primary school teachers are trained; it is also where the future students of higher education are selected and taught essential foundation skills. Students enter secondary school as children and leave it as young adults. What they experience there will influence the course of the rest of their lives. It is the level at which youngsters consolidate their basic knowledge gained in primary school, but also where they acquire the common culture that will allow them to be useful citizens in a peaceful society, where they build knowledge through experience and experiments, where essential subjects such as science, health education and technology are first taught in a formal way. Finally, this is where youngsters learn how to think, how to be, how to work, and how to cooperate with others. If those countries with the lowest high school enrolment rates continued to utilize scarce resources to (teachers, infrastructure, research, etc) will be less efficient than the primary schools. According the studies secondary school could be the most expensive to GNP per capita for those countries with the lowest enrolment rates. In sub-Saharan Africa where economic growth has been low, with high population growth and dependency ratios and this also could limits the scope for increased investment per student.

The two greatest challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa for the secondary level are to absorb the growth numbers of students from expanded primary systems and to provide skills, broaden their competences and enhance their employment opportunities. The two challenges recognize the importance of the problems emerging related to secondary provision. Rates of return for secondary schooling remain high and are often argued to be above the opportunity cost of capital and the rates of return for many other types of investment in agriculture, industry and infrastructure (World Bank, 1995). In an ideal world, primary education would be universal and publicly financed, and all children would be able to attend school regardless of their parents' ability or willingness to pay. The reason is simple: when any child fails to acquire the basic skills needed to function as a productive, responsible member of society, society as a whole—not to mention the individual children—loses. It also implies changing the culture of many head teachers, who would have to be trained to be real managers. The cost of educating children is far outweighed by the cost of not educating them. Adults who lack basic skills have greater difficulty finding well-paying jobs and escaping poverty. Education for girls has particularly striking social benefits: incomes are higher and maternal and infant mortality rates are lower for educated women, who also have more personal freedom in making choices.

In its broadest sense, learning can be defined as a process of progressive change from ignorance to knowledge, from inability to capability, and from unconcern to understanding. Also in many low income parents affecting demand for education to their children is perceived as value-less. Perhaps because parents have the poor quality of the education available to them may not have enough information to assess the return on an investment in their children's education accurately. In most developing countries, where weak demand for education is not attributable to cost, school attendance will not improve until cultural barriers and prejudices are overcome and the higher opportunity costs for girls than for boys are addressed. Improving the quality of secondary education, therefore, must include policies which use current resources creatively and more effectively. Teachers and principals are the most expensive, and possibly the most critical, components in establishing quality in education systems. New and more effective approaches to the preparation, deployment, utilization, compensation, and conditions of service for teachers, accompanied by more effective school leadership, are therefore necessary in achieving higher standards of quality in secondary education in Africa. The fiscal capacity of most governments to improve teachers’ compensation and conditions of service is extremely limited. Increase in or reallocation of public funds to secondary education as a general remedy is not feasible. Ensuring an adequate supply of qualified teachers requires monetary resources that many countries do not presently have and are unlikely to get in the near future. Countries therefore will need to make better and more creative use of the resources that are already available to secondary education.

Eighty percent of the learning capacity of the human brain is defined in the early years of life, before a child enters school. Given the right start, a child has a better chance of overcoming obstacles and succeeding in creating a positive and productive life. No education reform could succeed without the provision on a continuous basis of highly qualified and motivated teachers. The articulation of this paper is for developing a creative ways, mobilizing and providing continuous training for such a teaching force. In order to prepare young people for life and work in a rapidly changing world, secondary-level education systems need to be re-oriented to impart a broad repertoire of life skills. Such a model of secondary education is expected to equip young people with multiple skills so that they are prepared to enter and re-enter the workforce several times in their working lives

Dr. Ghirmai T Kefela

Ph.D. (Int. Business)





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