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Issue 291 / 18th August 2007
Issue 290 289 288 287 286 285 284 283

Qaran Leaders’ Trial Opens
In Mandhera Jail’s Vicinity

Violations Against The Rights Of The Leaders Of The QARAN Political Organization

Fighting breaks out between Sool and Puntland clans

Somali oil bill targets former concession-holders

Letter To The Editor

Somalia Is Still A Failed State

Armed clan feud in Somalia kills 16

Somalia: War Crimes in Mogadishu

Commencement of Second Phase of National Reconciliation Congress

Nurse Tutor/ Lecturers wanted for posts in Somaliland

The World After Bush Part II: Somalia

Regional Affairs

Peacemaker assassinated

250 More Troops For Somalia

Special Report

International News

U.N. peacekeepers may head to Somalia

Woman wins US court battle over hijab

On-The-Record Briefing On U.S.-Eritrea Relations

Martin L. King Jr. & Acceptable Killing of Children by Air Strikes in Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia

Lawmaker Apologizes for Muslim Remarks


Safirka: An American Envoy

China's Play for Somalia's Oil


Puntland:" A State or a Parasitic Entity within the Body Politic Of Somalia?

Land disputes fuel tensions in war-torn south Sudan

East African Nations Creating Regional Peacekeeping Force

Food for thought


Somaliland And Its University Graduates

Letter To The President Of Somaliland

Will Future Somaliland Presidents Ever Make The Mo Ibrahim Foundation List For Good Governance

No Chance for Kulmiye But Reforms

(As amended)
LAW NO 14/2000

The Family Circle Is The Survival Of Our Nation

The internationally approved Sub-clan cleansing/genocide in Moqadisho/Somalia

The Triumph of Rayale and Somaliland Tragedies

Moallim Harun Moallim Yusuf

Mogadishu, 18 August 2007 - The continued violence in Mogadishu has claimed another innocent civilian adored by locals for his peacemaking endeavours over the past 17 years.

Moallim Harun Moallim Yusuf, a Hawiye clan peacemaker, was shot dead near his house moments after he left a local mosque in Yaaqshiid district, his relatives said.

Kampala, August 16, 2007 – MORE 250 UPDF troops will be sent to war-torn Somalia to train the transitional government soldiers, the defense minister announced yesterday.

Dr Crispus Kiyonga, told MPs, "It is within our mandate to help our brothers and sisters in Somalia build their military capacity. We shall send troops to help in the training aspect. We want Somalis to be like us, with a serious national army."

Mogadishu, 18 August 2007 - Suspected Islamist-led insurgents attacked two police stations in Mogadishu, the Somali capital, overnight.

According to government officials, insurgents carried out ambush attacks on Wabari and Wadajir police stations in south of Mogadishu on Friday night.

ELDER ASSASSINATED: A high-ranking elder from the clan of beleaguered Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Gedi (pictured) was gunned down in Mogadishu overnight August 18, 2007, dealing a blow to a month-old peace initiative. (REUTERS)

Mogadishu, 18 August 2007 - A top clan elder from embattled Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohamed Gedi's clan was gunned down in Mogadishu overnight Saturday, dealing a blow to a laborious month-old peace initiative.

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Somaliland International Recognition Action Group (S.I.R.A.G)

To the Guurti, Parliament and Government of Somaliland

London, UK, August 15, 2007 – The trial case of the Veteran Politicians in Mandhera Prison is an Insult to the Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland which also annuls the outcome of this illegal Case.

Jendayi Frazer (file photo)
Jendayi Frazer (file photo)

Asmara, 18 August 2007 - A senior Eritrean minister Saturday criticized U.S. consideration to put his country on a list of state sponsors of terrorism for providing support to Islamist insurgents in Somalia.

U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer said Friday the U.S. is considering the move, which would impose sanctions on Eritrea.

Djibouti, August 16, 2007 – The civilian Killings in Somalia's capital has reach 31 innocent civilians in the past 24 hours, a local human rights group said Tuesday.

The battles began Monday when insurgents attacked government bases, said Sudan Ali Ahmed, chairman of Elman Human Rights, an independent Somali group.

Reporters Without Borders
Press release

13 August 2007

Reporters Without Borders voiced concern today about the fate of Johnny Hisabu, an editor with state-owned Eri-TV, who disappeared in late May after trying to flee across the border into Ethiopia. There are unconfirmed reports that he was arrested and has been held ever since in a detention centre in the southwestern town of Barentu.


Nairobi, August 18, 2007 - Kenya on Friday urged warring factions in Somalia to embrace dialogue as a way of resolving the protracted conflict in the Horn of Africa nation.

Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki urged Somalia's transitional federal government and the Supreme Council of Islamic Courts (SCIC) which have been fighting in Mogadishu and other parts of the war- torn nation to resolve the crisis which has plagued the lawless nation through dialogue.

Somalia soldiers keep watch in front of a government building in Mogadishu. (AFP/Getty Images)

Mogadishu, Aug 16, 2007 - Uganda announced plans on Thursday to send 250 extra soldiers to a peacekeeping mission in Mogadishu—but Somalia's government warned they were not enough and urged other African nations to commit troops.

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New York, 17 August 200 - According to a new analysis by the Food Security Analysis Unit for Somalia (FSAU), the Famine Early Warning Network, and other partners, the Shabelle regions in the south of Somalia are now in a state of humanitarian emergency.

Out of the 1.5 million people in need of assistance in Somalia, about 300,000 are in Middle and Lower Shabelle regions. The 1.5 million also includes around 490,000 other vulnerable people in need of aid, an estimated 325,000 persons internally displaced since April 2007 and some 400,000 persons who have been internally displaced for a protracted period.

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A wounded man is lifted on a stretcher as he arrives at the Medina hospital, Tuesday, Aug. 14, 2007 in the Somali capital, Mogadishu. Fighting in Somalia's capital has killed more than 30 civilians and wounded 60 in the past 24 hours, a local human rights group said Tuesday, marking the most violent day in Mogadishu in two months.(AP Photo/Mohamed Sheikh Nor) (Mohamed Sheikh Nor - AP)

MOGADISHU, Somalia, August 14, 2007 - Grenade attacks, bombs and gunbattles killed 31 civilians in Mogadishu in the most violent 24 hours the Somali capital had seen in two months, a local human rights group said Tuesday.

By Anna Husarska

GALKAYO, August 19, 2007 - Somalia On a dusty street that runs through this town of 80,000 in central Somalia, a cluster of men sit on low stools, lost in their daily ritual -- chewing the green leaves of a mild narcotic called khat. Lethargic and stupefied, they seem oblivious to everything. Only when their cellphones jangle -- a surreal sound in this otherwise primitive place -- do they snap to life. Soon they've arranged the money transfers they've been waiting for and lapse back into their somnolent masticating.

KHARTOUM, Aug 18 2007- China is still giving Sudan financial and military aid that enables it to wage war in Darfur, but global pressure on Beijing has made a difference, a Small Arms Survey research paper said.

The paper said advocacy to persuade China to exert its influence over Sudan was a "promising avenue" to bring peace and security to Darfur, torn apart by 4-1/2 years of revolt.

Press Statement

13 August 2007

Sultan Hurre Human Rights Focus (SHHRF) condemns the dreadful killing of Ali Iman Sharmarke and Mahad Ahmed Elmi, two prominent Somali journalists who were at the height of their professional careers. Ali Iman Sharmarke was co-founder of HornAfrik media, while Mahad Ahmed Elmi, hosted a popular radio talk show on Capital Voice, an FM station owned by HornAfrik Media.


Dr M. Gabose (L), Mr J. Aidid (C) and Mr M. Hashi (R) seen leaving the court room on Thursday, walking back to the prison under escort. (photo: courtersy of JAMHUURIYA).

Mandhera, Somaliland, August 18, 2007 (SL Times) – The leaders of Qaran Party, Dr M. Gabose, Mr M. Hashi and Mr J. Aidid who were arrested and jailed by the Somaliland government last month, appeared for the very first time on Thursday, in a specially arranged court in Mandhera police/custodial training school, Sahil region, 93 km northeast of Hargeysa.

The party leaders of Qaran, a non-registered political organization have been held in Mandhera high security prison since their arrest on 28 July 2007 for allegedly `engaging in unauthorized political activities' with the `intent to cause subversion'.

Badhan, Somaliland, August 18, 2007 (SL Times) – The semi-autonomous regional state of Puntland (Majeerteenya) declared this week that the recent formation of `Makhir state’ by eastern Sanag residents is `a load of ho ha and a dream'.

In a press statement, The Puntland Minister of Information, Mr Abdirahman Banga in recent press statement strongly condemned last week's declaration of a new state in eastern Sanag. Mr Banga said that the people behind the declaration of Makhir State are dreaming because it doesn't exist.

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Hargeysa, Somaliland – 14 August 2007

The national network of human rights organizations SHURO-net is always on standby for the protection and promotion of the basic rights of Somaliland citizens in accordance with the Islamic Sharia, the Somaliland Constitution and the International Resolutions on Human Rights.

The Somaliland national network of human rights organizations keeping a watchful and cautious eye on the human rights situation in general and the unlawful arrest of the leaders of the QARAN political organization in particular, are worried about the Somaliland Government’s continuous and increasing violations of the constitutional rights and freedoms of its citizens.

Taleh, Somaliland, August 18, 2007 (SL Times) – Fighting broke out in the Taleh district of Sool region on Sunday between a local S/land clan and a Puntland militia composed of Majeerteen clans. A number of dead and wounded were reported. The area is near S/land's border frontier with Puntland (Majeerteenya).

The local Dhulbahante clan of the Noor Ahmed branch of Taleh district fought off a Majeerteen militia which crossed into S/land in an effort to dislodge, according to local sources, the Noor Ahmed clan from the border region of Taleh district.

Nairobi, 14 August 2007 - Foreign players who declared force majeure and quit Somalia 16 years ago when the country descended into civil war will be given the chance to resume their activities under the country's proposed hydrocarbons law, it emerged today.

According to a parliamentary bill obtained by Reuters, companies that held concessions before 30 December 1990 would be given the right to return to those areas under new production sharing agreements.

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Dear Somaliland Times,

Do you believe journalism and the media have the power to save a nation from the bowels of   hell???


Even hope is in short supply as violence flares in Mogadishu

Image/illustration by Reuters

Nairobi, August 17, 2007 – WHO was behind the murder in the past week of two prominent journalists in Mogadishu, Somalia’s wretched capital city? Ali Imam Sharmake, the director of the country’s respected HornAfrik Radio, was killed while returning home from the funeral of a colleague, Mahad Ahmed Elmi, head of the city’s Capital Voice Radio. Mr. Elmi, also a popular presenter, had been shot dead earlier the same day by unknown attackers.

WASHINGTON, August 17, 2007 – The United States said on Friday it was considering putting Eritrea on its list of state sponsors of terrorism for allegedly funneling weapons to insurgents fighting the Ethiopian-backed government in Somalia.  

Putting Eritrea on the list would impose sanctions on the Horn of Africa nation, including a ban on arms-related sales, prohibitions on some U.S. aid and U.S. opposition to International Monetary Fund and World Bank loans to Eritrea.  

From Lord Avebury

Dear Lord Malloch-Brown,

London, UK, August 12, 2007 – I attach copies of my letter to the President of Somaliland dated August 6, and a note by the East Africa Policy Institute, Democracy challenged in Somaliland. As I’m sure you are aware, the Somaliland government have arrested three distinguished politicians who are said to have broken the law by forming a political association, with the intention of contesting the local elections, and if they do well, of claiming to act as one of the three parties allowed by the constitution, when it comes to the general election.

Somali government forces

MOGADISHU, 18 Aug 2007 - At least 16 people were killed and 30 others wounded on Saturday in a fierce gun battle between rival clans in central Somalia, witnesses said.

The violence erupted hours after the deputy governor of the Somali capital survived an assassination attempt as his car hit a remote-controlled landmine planted by suspected insurgents.

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UN Should Address Civilian Protection

Nairobi, August 13, 2007 – Ethiopian, Somali and insurgent forces are all responsible for rampant violations of the laws of war in Mogadishu, causing massive suffering for the civilian population, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. Human Rights Watch urged the UN Security Council during its current deliberations on Somalia to include a strong civilian protection mandate in any peacekeeping mission.

The 113-page report, “Shell-Shocked: Civilians Under Siege in Mogadishu,” is the first independent, on-the-ground investigation of the fighting that wracked Mogadishu in March and April 2007, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of civilians and the displacement of 400,000 people.

Statement by Secretary Condoleezza Rice
Washington , DC

August 18, 2007

The United States congratulates the participants in the Somalia National Reconciliation Congress on the completion of Phase One of the Congress and the progress achieved thus far. The resolution of long-standing conflicts between all clans, civil society, women’s groups, religious authorities, and business leaders is the first step toward establishing lasting peace and stability in Somalia.

As the second phase of the Congress begins, I urge you to turn your attention toward the key political tasks now in front of you that are outlined in the "Roadmap to Governance, National Reconciliation, and Dialogue" and in the Transitional Federal Charter. They include achieving equitable representation by all key stakeholders in the Transitional Federal Institutions and addressing next steps in the transitional process.

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Dear all,

The London-based Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET) is recruiting a Head Nurse Tutor and Principal Lecturer to deliver a new programme of work based at the Institute of Health Sciences, the government nurse training college in Hargeisa,  Somailand. The postholders will be responsible for implementing a two year nurse tutor training course and a two year programme of continuous professional development (CPD) for practising nurse tutors in Somaliland.

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By Liam Bailey
17 August 2007

I said in a recent article that the U.S. arms sale to the gulf is a possible sign that a U.S. withdrawal from Iraq might be closer than Bush wants to admit. With all my conviction I say: there will be no U.S. victory in Iraq and eventually they will have to pullout, if not before Bush leaves office then sometime soon after.

When reading an article about the continued violence in Somalia with my last article still fresh in my mind, I asked myself the question, where will the world be after the Bush administration?

International News

UNITED NATIONS, 14 August 2007 - Britain is proposing the United Nations start planning for the possible deployment of U.N. peacekeepers to take over for an African Union force struggling to keep the peace in war-torn Somalia, according to a draft Security Council resolution circulated Monday.

The AU‘s Peace and Security Council agreed last month to extend the mandate of its force in Somalia for six months and called for the U.N. to deploy a peacekeeping operation that will support the country‘s long-term stabilization.

WASHINGTON, 18 August 2007 - A refugee from war-torn Somalia, Bilan Nur, came to the United States and succeeded in getting a job as a customer sales representative with Alamo Car Rental in Phoenix. As a Muslim, she wore a hijab, or head scarf, during the holy month of Ramadan.

But after the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, her employer refused to permit Nur to continue to cover her head at all, even though Nur was willing to wear an approved scarf with the Alamo Car Rental logo. The company fired Nur in December 2001 — only eight days before Ramadan ended that year — and declared her ineligible for rehire.

Jendayi Frazer, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs
Washington , DC
August 17, 2007

ASSISTANT SECRETARY FRAZER: Well, essentially, I think the purpose of this is to address: U.S.-Eritrea relations and, especially in light of certain reports that have come out recently, to include our closure of the consulate in Oakland; Somalia's activities, as indicated by the UN Monitoring Group on supplying arms and fighters into Somalia; the outstanding and continuing issues on the Eritrea-Ethiopia border, and the way ahead for resolving that; and then, of course, the domestic human rights concerns that we have, as indicated in our Human Rights Report, our annual Human Rights Report on Eritrea.

By Jay Janson
August 17, 2007

2007! In the absence of any moral political leadership, the typical American goes about a self-centered commercially affluent life not giving a damn for the children killed in daily air strikes on "suspected" enemies of the United States in this or that far away land.

But from April 4 1967, when Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Nobel Prize Laureate for successful civil rights leadership, spoke from the pulpit of Riverside Church in New York, calling his country. "The greatest purveyor of violence in the world", until his assassination on April 4, 1968, America DID INDEED have inspiring moral political leadership for its anti-war movement.

BOISE, Idaho, August 18, 2007 - Rep. Bill Sali has apologized to a Muslim colleague for remarks suggesting the nation's founders never intended for Muslims to serve in Congress.

In an Aug. 8 interview with the conservative Christian-based American Family News Network, Sali also questioned the wisdom of Senate leaders, who last month invited a Hindu clergyman to give the morning prayer in the chamber.

Somaliland Map
Map of Somaliland Republic


When it comes to human rights, Somaliland fares well compared to neighboring countries. For example, prisoners are not tortured or murdered in Somaliland’s jails. As a matter of fact, the country did not have any political prisoners until about three weeks ago. Nevertheless, there has been a steady and unmistakable deterioration in the human rights situation in the country. The problem has two levels: the symbolic and the substantive. On a symbolic level, when Somalilanders elected President Rayale, they knew he was a former member of Siyad Barre’s notorious National Security Service (NSS), but they voted for him anyway because they also knew that he was a former vice-president of independent Somaliland who, along with President Egal, contributed to establishing peace and stability in Somaliland. Thus by voting for Rayale, most of the electorate was voting for Rayale the former president of Somaliland, and not Rayale the former NSS colonel.

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Special Report

By Prof. M. Y. Ali

In this paper, seismic, well, and outcrop data have been used to determine the petroleum systems of Somaliland. These data demonstrate that the country has favourable stratigraphy, structure, oil shows, and hydrocarbon source rocks.


In November 2005, the Centre for Human Rights began investigating the possibility of a third destination for the LLM field trip. The reasons for increasing the number of field trip destinations to include Somaliland include the following:

Somaliland is a state in the making; it would be ideal for students on the programme to have a first hand experience of this.


Ahmed KBy heyre, London

We have all heard the quotes on the value of a good education, but the question is what does one do with a good education?

In the case of Somaliland, much to the credit of the nation’s higher learning institutions, a slew of graduates, most recently medical graduates, have emerged. This feat unheard of in an unrecognized and underfunded country. I am sure, some experts in the UN, EU, or the AU are sitting at their desks, shaking their heads in bewilderment. They are wondering how this small and under-developed, but determined nation, achieved such a historic feats with minimal external financial or logistic support!

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By Hussein Abdi Hussein; Doha-Qatar

Dear Mr. President

I profoundly commend this unrecognized party and its leaders which is not so far legally registered but had begun informal political activities in advance of the local elections expected to be held in December 2007. Sincerely, this was disgraceful not merely on one nation, but on a doctrine of respect of Somaliland constitution cherished by all Somaliland people. I urge the States of Somaliland and its society to irreverently condemn such misdemeanor, to bring to justice those who are responsible, and to prevent its repetition. But in one condition;

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Will Future Somaliland Presidents Ever Make The Mo Ibrahim Foundation List For Good Governance

By Ahmed Mohamed Suleiman

As we are again witnessing an other dictator rising in the horn, from a country that is not even recognized, will black Africa ever change its customary of corruption and bad governance.

Recently, there was a foundation   called Mo Ibrahim foundation formed by Sudanese billionaire who made his fortune from telecommunication business.

Unilateral Government

By Hussein Abdi Hussein

Contrary the most prediction, Somaliland self proclaiming state is a bright affair and There's no doubt that Somaliland has a well-working government, military, parliament, constitution, ministries…etc brief all what makes a country run properly. Since the Somaliland authority assumed control of Somaliland territory a relative calm and development has persisted and will succeed at the end. It is sufficient for all of us to assert that Somaliland's Unitary Government can be considered a phenomenon and an uncommon African success story that needs to be specified with full credit.

No Chance for Kulmiye But Reforms

By Abdifatah Ismail

Dr Mohamed Omar’s recent analysis of the upcoming elections in Somaliland and his prediction that Kulmiye will win it by a landslide victory lacks the grounding necessary for making such prophecies. Three main reasons can be cited for this.

Firstly, Dr Omar seems to model his calculation on the advanced European democracies where political parties play the games of numbers to gain support from the electorate, assuming that the same would apply in Somaliland.


This Law was passed by the House of Representatives on 19/6/2000 (Resolution No: GW/KF-11/133/2000) and the House of Elders on 8/7/200 (Resolution No: GG/jsl/KAL-11/G10217/2000); and the President signed it (Presidential Decree No: 26 of 2000) on 6/8/200. It came into force on the latter date.

The Republic of Somaliland shall have a general committee which is independent and which will have the responsibility for registering associations and approving political parties.

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By M.A.Adaweh

In recent years the Somali family problems have increased tremendously and the divorce rate is higher then ever before. The reason behind this is that in the past, entering a divorce used to be regarded as a very difficult situation whereas presently it has been facilitated by the easy manner men adapt when talking about it amongst themselves. Some men now joke with each other about how they have divorced their wives in a state of anger. Moreover, divorce has also become a figure of speech "Habeenkii furniinka..."(“I swear to divorce her if…”) "(Waxaan ku dhaartey inaan furo haddii....."). Which is an expression easily used by everyone all the time.

By Mohamud Samatar

The sub-clan cleansing against the Habar-gidir of Hawiye in Southern Somalia particularly in Moqdisho are mostly caused by the so-called military army or the militia created by the governments Somalia/TFG, in the name National Army. Most government militia who operate in Moqdisho the capital of Somalia and it's surroundings are of the sub-clans, of the Abgal of the Hawiye and the Majertens of the Darood clan, both arch enemy of the Habargidir sub-clan of Hawiye.

By Suleiman Sultan/Seattle

There are five tragedies that led to the sad state of affairs for Somaliland:

1. Robbing of the 2003 Presidential Election.
2. The illegal arrest of the Haatuf Journalists
3. The unlawful arrest of traditional leaders
4. Blockage of Harbi Ships from Berbera
5. The Kidnapping of Qaran Leaders.

I am shocked and dismayed by the arrest of the Qaran Leaders. Dismayed but not surprised. We all know throughout the last five years the primary victims of Riyal’s gangs’ state terror were Somaliland citizens.


Book Review

A career Foreign Service officer, Peter Bridges served the United States in Panama, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, and Italy before becoming, in his final assignment, ambassador to Somalia. (The book’s title is Somali for “ambassador.”) Like most memoirists, naturally enough, he seeks to portray himself as reasonable and competent. Bridges is particularly convincing in this effort. Among other things, he turned himself into something of a scholar of Somali history and culture; he demonstrates a familiarity with a far-flung literature here, much of it in Italian.

J. Peter Pham

By J. Peter Pham, Ph.D.
14 Aug 2007

As this column has chronicled over the past year and a half, United States policy toward the remnants of the former state of Somalia has evolved into a sort of dramatic farce played out in the following manner:


images of blind people

Tawakal Lifeline UK and its partner a Medical charity called Manhal (based in Somaliland) is offering a work placement for Eye Surgeon (this person will be offered return flights, food, accommodation and in country transport). A certification of practice in Somaliland will be awarded at the end of the work placement by the Medical charity and the government officials.

Somalia president Abdillahi Yusuf (L) arrives on 08/08/07 at Mogadishu airport accompanied by Puntland president Adde Mussa (R).

Aug 06, 2007

By Prof Amina Mire

It is no secrete to most Somalis that Abdillahi Yusuf and other Puntland warlords in the transitional federal government [TFG], are using their current political power in the south to loot local businesses in Mogadishu such as the Bakaraha Market, engage in clan and subclan based revenge killings: all in the name of advancing their subclan Majeerteen power base in the separatist fiefdom of Puntland.

Villagers cross flood waters in Kassala village, Gedaref state in east Sudan, August 14, 2007. Some 763 people are victims of a cholera outbreak, spread by devastating floods in eastSudan over the past two months.

JUBA, Sudan, Aug 18 2007 - Land disputes in southern Sudan following Africa's longest civil war are fuelling tensions and a proposed land register could take years to complete, an official said on Friday.

Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki Nairobi, Kenya, 01 June 2007

Nairobi, 17 August 2007 - Defense ministries from across the East African region announced Friday that they are creating a new force to be used in peacekeeping missions as well as national emergencies. As Caroline Sawyer reports from Nairobi, the defense ministers said that the force will be ready by 2010.

Food for thought

According to Ruth Kelly, migrants must learn English language to integrate. Learning English language is about as useful as learning Arabic, Urdu and other community languages. The British Establishment and society has systematically failed to understand the causes of migration, global terrorism and social and emotional, economic segregation. Muslims suffer different forms of discrimination which reduce their employment opportunities and affect their educational achievements.



Somaliland Times Newspaper: Publisher Haatuf Media Network, Published in Hargeysa, Somaliland


Editor in Chief: Yusuf Abdi Gabobe. Assoc-Editor: Rashid Mustafa X Noor

Assist-Editor: Abdifatah M Aideed

Somaliland Times Web Editor : Rashid Mustafa X Noor (2005)

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