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Security Council Express Strong Support For Secretary-General's Integrated Strategy For Peace In Somalia, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1814 (2008)
15 May 2008
Requests Updated Version of Plan within 60 Days; Welcomes Recommendation to Move Political Office from Nairobi to Mogadishu
The Security Council this afternoon expressed its strong support for Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's integrated strategy for building the foundations of peace and durable stability in Somalia, including plans for greater international presence on the ground in the troubled east African country.
Unanimously adopting resolution 1814 (2008) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the 15-member body endorsed the three-pronged approach proposed in Mr. Ban's 14 March report on the situation (document S/2008/178), which aligned the political, security and programmatic efforts of the United Nations in the country in a 'sequenced and mutually reinforcing way', and requested an updated version within 60 days.
To facilitate that strategy, the Council approved Mr. Ban's proposal to establish a joint planning unit in the office of his Special Representative, and welcomed his recommendation to relocate the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) and the country team headquarters from Nairobi, Kenya, to Mogadishu, the seat of the Transitional Federal Institutions in Somalia.
It decided that UNPOS and the country team should support the Transitional Federal Institutions in developing a Constitution and holding a referendum on the resulting document, as well as holding democratic elections in 2009.
In regard to security, it welcomed efforts, in coordination with donors, to strengthen United Nations logistical, political and technical support to the African Union in order to help that organization reinforce its Mission in Somalia, known as AMISOM. It also requested that the Secretary-General continue his contingency planning for the possible deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping mission to succeed AMISOM, including mandate options in addition to those already proposed in his report.
Recalling its intention to take action against people or organizations that hampered stability in Somalia or breached the arms embargo, it requested the sanctions committee for the country to recommend, within 60 days, specific, targeted measures to impose on them.
The Council meeting opened at 3:49 p.m. and adjourned at 3:52 p.m.
The full text of resolution 1814 (2008) reads as follows:
'The Security Council,
'Recalling its previous resolutions concerning the situation in Somalia, in particular resolution 733 (1992), resolution 1356 (2001), resolution 1425 (2002), resolution 1725 (2006), resolution 1744 (2007), resolution 1772 (2007), resolution 1801 (2008) and resolution 1811 (2008), and the statements of its President, in particular those of 13 July 2006 (S/PRST/2006/31), 22 December 2006 (S/PRST/2006/59), 30 April 2007 (S/PRST/2007/13), 14 June 2007 (S/PRST/2007/19) and 19 December 2007 (S/PRST/2007/49),
'Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia,
'Reiterating its commitment to a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the situation in Somalia through the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), stressing the importance of broad-based and representative institutions reached through a political process ultimately inclusive of all, as envisaged in the TFC, and reiterating its support for Somalia's Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs) to take this forward,
'Reiterating the need for agreement on a comprehensive and lasting cessation of hostilities and a roadmap for the remainder of the transitional process, including free and democratic elections in 2009 as set out in the TFC,
'Welcoming the continued efforts by Prime Minister Nur 'Adde' Hassan Hussein and his Cabinet, under the leadership of President Abdillahi Yusuf Ahmed and supported by the Transitional Federal Parliament, to advance the political process and implement the transitional period, as required by the TFC, in particular the agreement to prepare a timetable for the Constitutional Process leading to a referendum in 2009, the presentation of the Reconciliation Strategy of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), engagement with clan and local leaders across the country, and efforts to implement the National Security and Stabilization Plan and to improve public finance management including budgetary and fiscal processes, and supporting efforts to make further progress in all these areas,
'Welcoming the commitment of all Somali parties that have agreed to engage in dialogue with each other with a view to establishing peace and security in Somalia, urging all Somali parties to honor these commitments and to resort to peaceful means only to resolve their disputes, further welcoming the supporting role of the United Nations, in particular the practical support of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) to help progress this dialogue, and supporting in this regard the start on 12 May 2008 of discussions between the parties in Djibouti,
'Welcoming the Secretary-General's report on Somalia of 14 March 2008 (S/2008/178), in particular its assessment that the political situation in Somalia currently provides a renewed opportunity for the international community to give practical support to domestic initiatives, including an increased presence of United Nations personnel and, subject to broad-based political and security agreements and conditions on the ground, the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping operation to succeed the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM),
'Welcoming the Secretary-General's support for a comprehensive United Nations strategic approach for peace and stability in Somalia, aligning and integrating political, security and programmatic efforts in a sequenced and mutually reinforcing way, and endorsing ongoing work by the United Nations to support the political process in Somalia and to determine options for re-locating United Nations staff to Somalia,
'Commending the work of the SRSG, Mr. Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, and of UNPOS, reaffirming its strong support for his work, in particular his leading role in coordinating international efforts, and requesting that all parties, as well as international organizations, the United Nations country team and Member States support and work in close coordination with him at all times,
'Reaffirming its condemnation of all acts of, and incitement to, violence inside Somalia, expressing its concern at all acts intended to prevent or block a peaceful political process, and expressing its further concern at such acts and incitement continuing,
'Underlining the importance of providing and maintaining stability and security throughout Somalia, and underscoring the importance of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of militia and ex-combatants in Somalia,
'Emphasizing the contribution that AMISOM is making to lasting peace and stability in Somalia, welcoming in particular the continuing commitment of the Governments of Uganda and Burundi, regretting the recent loss of a Burundian soldier, condemning any hostility towards AMISOM, and urging all parties in Somalia and the region to support and cooperate with AMISOM,
'Underlining that the full deployment of AMISOM will help facilitate the full withdrawal of other foreign forces from Somalia and help create the conditions for lasting peace and stability there,
'Taking note of the letter dated 20 February 2008 from the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission to the Secretary-General, which was annexed to the Secretary-General's report of 14 March 2008, and of the reply from the Secretary-General of 23 April 2008 (S/2008/309),
'Emphasizing the continued contribution made to Somalia's peace and security by the arms embargo imposed by resolution 733 (1992), as elaborated and amended by resolutions 1356 (2001), 1425 (2002), 1725 (2006), 1744 (2007) and 1772 (2007), and reiterating its demand that all Member States, in particular those in the region, comply fully with it,
'Expressing deep concern at the human rights situation in Somalia, and taking note of the Resolution on Somalia adopted at the 7th Session of the Human Rights Council, and of the renewal by the Human Rights Council of the mandate for the Independent Expert on Somalia,
'Expressing its serious concern at the worsening humanitarian situation in Somalia and the continuing difficulties for humanitarian organizations operating in Somalia, including humanitarian access and security for humanitarian personnel, and reaffirming the humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence,
'Determining that the situation in Somalia continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,
'Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
'1. Requests the Secretary-General to continue and intensify his efforts, working together with the international community, to promote an ongoing political process which is ultimately inclusive of all, including by assisting the TFIs in this regard and in delivering services to the Somali people;
'2. Strongly supports the approach proposed by the Secretary-General's report of 14 March 2008, welcomes his intention to provide an updated comprehensive, integrated United Nations Strategy for peace and stability in Somalia, aligning and integrating political, security and programmatic efforts in a sequenced and mutually reinforcing way, and to include an assessment of the capacity of UNPOS to implement the Strategy, and requests that he submit the updated version to the Security Council within 60 days from the adoption of this resolution;
'3. Approves the Secretary-General's proposal in his report of 14 March 2008 to establish a joint planning unit in the office of the SRSG to facilitate effective and efficient implementation of the integrated strategy;
'4. Welcomes the Secretary-General's recommendation, as set out in his report of 14 March 2008, to relocate UNPOS and the country team headquarters from Nairobi to Mogadishu or an interim location in Somalia in order to help deliver the comprehensive, integrated United Nations strategy in Somalia, and requests the Secretary-General to establish the necessary security arrangements for such a relocation, and to update the Security Council when he submits the Strategy referred to in paragraph 2 above;
'5. Decides that UNPOS and the United Nations country team shall, in promoting a comprehensive and lasting settlement in Somalia and through the promotion of the ongoing political process, enhance their support to the TFIs with the aim of developing a constitution and holding a constitutional referendum and free and democratic elections in 2009, as required by the TFC, and facilitating coordination of the international community's support to these efforts, and requests the Secretary-General within 60 days from the adoption of this resolution to report on progress with this work;
'6. Recalls its intention to take measures against those who seek to prevent or block a peaceful political process, or those who threaten the TFIs or AMISOM by force, or take action that undermines stability in Somalia or the region, and therefore requests the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) (herein after 'the Committee') to provide, within 60 days from the adoption of this resolution, recommendations on specific targeted measures to be imposed against such individuals or entities;
'7. Recalls its intention to strengthen the effectiveness of the United Nations arms embargo on Somalia, states its intention to take measures against those who breach the arms embargo, and those who support them in doing so, and therefore requests the Committee to provide, within 60 days from the adoption of this resolution, recommendations on specific targeted measures to be imposed against such individuals or entities;
'8. Requests the Secretary-General to continue his contingency planning for the possible deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Somalia to succeed AMISOM, including of possible additional scenarios, in close contact with UNPOS, the United Nations country team and other United Nations stakeholders, taking account of all relevant conditions on the ground, and considering additional options for the size, configuration, responsibility and proposed area of operation of the mission depending on different conditions on the ground, requests the Secretary-General to update on progress in his planning in the report referred to in paragraph 5 above, and expresses its willingness to consider, at an the appropriate time, a peacekeeping operation to take over from AMISOM, subject to progress in the political process and improvement in the security situation on the ground;
'9. Welcomes the Secretary-General's undertaking, as set out in his letter of 23 April 2008 to the Chairperson of the AU Commission, to provide additional United Nations technical advisers to the AU's Strategic Plans and Management Unit in Addis Ababa, and encourages the Secretary-General to continue to explore with the AU Commission Chairperson, in coordination with donors, ways and means to strengthen United Nations logistical, political and technical support for the AU, to build the AU's institutional capacity to carry out its commitments in addressing the challenges it faces in supporting AMISOM, and to assist AMISOM's full deployment, to the extent possible and as appropriate, with the goal of achieving United Nations standards, and to update the Council in the report referred to in paragraph 5 above;
'10. Reiterates its call upon Member States to provide financial resources, personnel, equipment and services for the full deployment of AMISOM and upon Member States of the African Union to contribute to AMISOM in order to facilitate the withdrawal of other foreign forces from Somalia and help create the conditions for lasting peace and stability there, urges those Member States which have offered to contribute to AMISOM to fulfill such commitments, recognizes that more needs to be done to harness increased support for AMISOM, and takes note of the Secretary-General's proposals for harnessing such support, as set out in his letter of 23 April 2008;
'11. Reiterates its support for the contribution made by some States to protect the World Food Programme maritime convoys, calls upon States and regional organizations, in close coordination with each other and as notified in advance to the Secretary-General, and at the request of the TFG, to take action to protect shipping involved with the transportation and delivery of humanitarian aid to Somalia and United Nations-authorized activities, calls upon AMISOM troop-contributing countries, as appropriate, to provide support to this end, and requests the Secretary-General to provide his support to this effect;
'12. Strongly supports and encourages the ongoing humanitarian relief efforts in Somalia, recalls its resolution 1502 (2003) on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, calls on all parties and armed groups in Somalia to take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and security of AMISOM, United Nations and humanitarian personnel, demands that all parties ensure timely, safe and unhindered access for the delivery of humanitarian assistance to all those in need, wherever they may be, and urges the countries in the region to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance, including the timely, safe and unhindered passage of essential relief goods into Somalia by land or via air and sea ports;
'13. Requests the Secretary-General to strengthen ongoing efforts for establishing a United Nations-led mechanism for bringing together and facilitating consultations between humanitarian organizations operating in Somalia, the TFG, donors and other relevant parties in order to help resolve issues of access, security and provision of humanitarian relief throughout Somalia, and further requests him to report on progress in the report referred to in paragraph 5 above;
'14. Requests the Secretary-General to establish an effective capacity within UNPOS to monitor and enhance the protection of human rights in Somalia, and to ensure coordination, as appropriate, between UNPOS, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Human Rights Council Independent Expert, and further requests the Secretary-General to report on progress in achieving this in the report referred to in paragraph 5 above;
'15. Supports the ongoing efforts of the United Nations, the African Union and interested Member States, in close cooperation with the TFG, to develop security sector institutions in Somalia, and requests the SRSG to enhance his coordination role in this area, aligning relevant United Nations programmes and Member States' activities;
'16. Condemns all and any violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, calls upon all parties in Somalia to respect fully their obligations in this regard, and calls for those responsible for such violations in Somalia to be brought to justice;
'17. Reaffirms its previous resolutions 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, and 1674 (2006) and 1738 (2006) on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and stresses the responsibility of all parties and armed groups in Somalia to take appropriate steps to protect the civilian population in the country, consistent with international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, in particular by avoiding any indiscriminate attacks on populated areas;
'18. Reaffirms its previous resolution 1612 (2005) on children and armed conflict and recalls the subsequent conclusions of the Security Council Working Group on Children in Armed Conflict pertaining to parties to the armed conflict in Somalia (S/AC.51/2007/14);
'19. Recalls that, pursuant to Article 65 of the United Nations Charter, the Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and shall assist the Security Council upon its request;
'20. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.'
The Council had before the Secretary-General's quarterly report on the situation in Somalia (document S/2008/178), which provides an update on the security, human rights and humanitarian situations and outlines development activities carried out by United Nations agencies and programmes for Somalia, as well as the status of contingency planning for possible deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping operation to take over from the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Attached to the document is a letter dated 20 February from the Chair of the African Union Commission to the Secretary-General, detailing the substance and form of the support package required in that regard. Also annexed to the report is a United Nations strategic assessment of Somalia, and contingency plans for a possible United Nations peacekeeping operation.
The Secretary-General reports significant recent developments in Somalia, leading to the formation of a new Government and its relocation from Baidoa to the capital, Mogadishu. The appointment by President Abdillahi Yusuf Ahmed of Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein and subsequent selection of an able and competent Cabinet is encouraging. Concurrent strategic assessment and fact-finding missions have shown that, despite the difficult security situation characterized by indiscriminate killing, kidnapping and hijacking, there is an opportunity to end the prolonged conflict in Somalia and the suffering of its people.
'In short, we must seize, without delay, the strategic moment and move decisively to build the foundations for durable peace and stability in Somalia,' the Secretary-General concludes. To that end, the Organization is developing a three-pronged integrated strategy, aligning the political, security and programmatic aspects of its work in the country. The Secretary-General emphasizes the need to provide the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) with increased capacity and a more robust mandate to implement an integrated United Nations approach. He also suggests that, in addition to AMISOM and a possible United Nations peacekeeping force, the international community should consider other options, including the deployment of a robust multinational force or 'coalition of willing partners' for a specific period of time, with a limited objective of securing a specific area, which could pave the way for the withdrawal of foreign forces.
According to the report, the structure of the United Nations system in Somalia needs to be reconfigured to ensure that the integrated strategy can be effectively carried out. A Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General/Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator should be appointed once there is sufficient progress on the political and security tracks. In addition, a joint planning unit should be established in the office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to ensure coherence and proper articulation, consultation and synergies in the implementation of the integrated strategy.
The Secretary-General encourages the leaders of the Transitional Federal Government to implement the recommendations of the National Reconciliation Congress of 2007, including the development of a road map for the completion of the tasks of establishing a functional local administration, constitutional process, preparing for a national census and the holding of elections in 2009, as well as the implementation of the National Security and Stabilization Plan. He calls upon all parties to cease hostilities, while also calling on Somalis to renounce violence and adhere to the Transitional Federal Charter. All parties should protect the civilian population and abstain from harming or kidnapping humanitarian workers and other expatriates working in Somalia. Ongoing skirmishes between 'Puntland' and ' Somaliland' continue to be a source of concern, and both parties are urged to resort to peaceful means for resolving their dispute.
As noted by the fact-finding mission, the complexity of the present security situation may not encourage countries to respond to the challenging need for an international stabilization force, but the measure of stability afforded by such a presence would enhance the prospects for a successful peace process. Countries are encouraged to take the initiative in the deployment of an international stabilization force to permit the withdrawal of foreign forces and prevent a vacuum thereafter. In the meantime, contingency planning for an integrated peacekeeping operation should be continually updated, so that the United Nations is prepared for deployment as soon as conditions permit.
Increased presence of United Nations personnel on the ground would support the parties in the political process, through the provision of impartial good offices and programmatic assistance to key peacebuilding efforts related to governance and security. Deployment of United Nations personnel in southern and central Somalia must, however, be a gradual process, building up as security conditions permit. Therefore, the Department of Political Affairs, UNPOS and the United Nations country team have been instructed to work with the Department of Safety and Security in determining the activities that are critical to support the political progress and security options needed to ensure protection of personnel. The Department of Safety and Security, in consultation with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Support, has been asked to assess the feasibility of and develop credible security options to enable relocation of UNPOS and the country team headquarters from Nairobi to Mogadishu.
Drawing the Council's attention to the precarious human rights situation in the country, the Secretary-General writes that the lack of accountability for crimes reinforces a sense of impunity and further fuels conflict. In that connection, the Secretary-General calls for the establishment of an effective capacity within UNPOS to monitor and enhance the protection of human rights, in the framework of previous decisions on human rights in integrated missions.
The Secretary-General commends AMISOM troops for their professionalism and welcomes the recent arrival of troops from Burundi. He calls on Member States to favorably consider the request for voluntary contributions to the African Union financial and logistic support for AMISOM. At the same time, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations will continue to work with the African Union in supporting AMISOM through the provision of planners and technical advice. The United Nations will also continue its efforts to address humanitarian needs in the country. All States in the region must respect Somalia's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, which is important for long-term regional stability. It is necessary to explore measures to deal with the regional dimensions of the crisis and to find ways to address the security concerns of Somalia and its neighbors.
Source: United Nations Security Council